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Engineering Calculations

Torque and horsepower relations: 

T = HP x 5252 ÷ RPM
HP = T x RPM ÷ 5252
RPM = HP x 5252 ÷ T
Torque values are in foot pounds.

Horsepower for driving a pump: 

For every 1 HP of drive, the equivalent of 1 GPM @ 1500 PSI can be produced.

Hydraulic (fluid power) horsepower: 

HP = PSI x GPM ÷ 1714
PSI is gauge pressure in pounds per square inch,
GPM is oil flow in gallons per minute.

Horsepower for idling a pump: 

To idle a pump when it is unloaded will require about 5% of its full rated horsepower.

Velocity of oil flow in pipe: 

V = GPM x 0.3208 ÷ A
V is oil velocity in feet per
second. GPM is flow in gallons
per minute, A is inside area of
pipe in square inches.

Compressibility of hydraulic oil: 

Volume reduction is approximately 1/2% for every 1000 PSI of fluid pressure.

Charles' Law for behavior of gases:
T1 V2 = T2 V1, or T1 P2 = T2 P1
T1, P1. and V1 are initial temperature, pressure, and volume, and T2, P2, and V2 are final


Compressibility of water: 

Volume reduction is about 1/3% for every 1000 PSI pressure.

Boyle's Law for behavior of gases:
P1 V1 = P2 V2
P1 and V1 are initial pressure and volume; P2 and V2 are final conditions.


Wattage for heating hydraulic oil: 

Each watt will raise the temperature of 1 gallon of oil by 10F per hour.

Hydraulic cyl. piston travel speed:
S = CIM ÷ A
S is piston travel speed, inches per minute, CIM is oil flow into cylinder, cubic inches per minute, A is piston area in square inches.


Flow velocity in hydraulic lines: 

Pump suction lines 2 to 4 feet per second; pressure lines up to sure to 500 PSI, 10 to 15 feet/sec.; Pressure lines 500 to 3000 PSI, 15 to 20 feet/sec.; pressure lines over 3000 PSI, 25 ft/sec; all oil lines in air-over-oil system, 4 ft/sec.

Heat equivalent of fluid power:
BTU per hour = PSI x GPM ÷ 2

Thrust or force of any cylinder: 

T = A x PSI
T is thrust or force, in pounds, A is piston net area in square inches, PSI is gauge pressure.


Industry References

Download Prochure: Explosion Proof Motor Classifications ATEX IEC

Download Prochure: Explosion Proof Motor Classifications NEMA

Download Prochure: NEMA and IP Ratings 1

Download Prochure: NEMA and IP Ratings 2

Powerfully Smart Solutions

Flow Products, Inc. has over 60 years as a leading hydraulics, pneumatics and electro-mechanical systems expert. We have become a key component in the success of our customers. This valued position is enhanced by the major industry manufacturers we partner with.
Focusing on our customer’s business needs.


Fluid Conveyance

• Bulk Hose & Fittings
• Adapters & Protective Sleeves
• Pipe Clamping Systems
• Flow Meters
• Sight & Level Gauges
• Rotary Manifolds
• Quick Disconnects
• Custom Hose Assemblies

Hydraulics & Pneumatics

• Servo Systems
• Pumps: Gear, Vane, Piston, Hydrostatic
• Valves: Directional, Flow, Pressure Control
• Solenoid, Manual & Piloted
• Cylinders: Rodless, Mobile, Industrial, ISO, NFPA
• Materials: Aluminum, Steel, Stainless Steel
• Motors: Hydraulic, Pneumatic
• Filtration & Vacuum Systems
• Rotary Actuators

Power Transmission

• Brakes, Clutches
• Right Angle Gear Drives & Motors
• Parallel Gear Drives
• Planetary Gearboxes
• Swing Drives
• Slew Bearings
• Wheel Drive

Electrical & Controls

• Electro-mechanical Actuators
• Control Panels
• Temperature, Pressure & Flow Transmitters
• Temperature & Pressure Sensors
• Motors: AC, DC, Stepper, Servo
• Automation Cabling, Power Supplies
• Variable Frequency Drives

Custom Engineered Solutions

• Power Units: Mobile & Industrial
• Tube Bend Fabrication – max. 2.5” OD tube
• Integrated Circuit Manifold Assemblies
• Hose Assemblies (Hydraulic, Industrial, Metal Flexible)
• TEFLON Hose with Stainless Steel Braid
• Pneumatic Valve Manifolds & Panels